Peppol 4-Corner Model for E-Invoicing

Explore the PEPPOL 4-corner model, a pioneering framework that simplifies electronic document exchanges across different procurement systems. Learn how this model enhances interoperability and streamlines transactions between businesses and governments.

Ajith Kumar M
April 22, 2024
5 min

The "4-Corner Model" is a fundamental concept in electronic document exchange systems like e-invoicing, especially within frameworks such as PEPPOL (Pan-European Public Procurement OnLine). This model is designed to facilitate interoperable and secure digital transactions between different businesses and entities by using a standardized protocol. Here’s a detailed explanation and breakdown of the 4-Corner Model:

What is the 4-Corner Model?

The 4-Corner Model is an architectural framework used in digital transaction systems that allows different businesses to exchange electronic documents in a standardized, interoperable manner. This model involves four key players:

  1. Corner 1 - Supplier (Sender): This is the originator of the electronic document, such as an e-invoice. The supplier uses their own Accounting Software or ERP System to generate and send the invoice.
  2. Corner 2 - Supplier’s Access Point (Service Provider): This service provider receives the electronic document from the supplier and converts it into a standard format that can be understood across different systems. This conversion ensures that the document adheres to the agreed-upon specifications like PEPPOL.
  3. Corner 3 - Buyer’s Access Point (Service Provider): Similar to the supplier’s access point, the buyer’s service provider receives the standardized document and converts it into a format compatible with the buyer’s systems.
  4. Corner 4 - Buyer (Receiver): This is the endpoint of the document exchange where the buyer receives and processes the invoice through their own Accounting Software or ERP System.

Key Features and Benefits

  • Interoperability: By standardizing the document specifications and formats (such as using UBL - Universal Business Language), the 4-Corner Model allows different businesses using different systems to communicate seamlessly world wide.
  • Flexibility: Businesses can choose their service providers for sending and receiving documents, which means they are not locked into a specific technology or vendor.
  • Security: The exchange of documents is conducted over secure channels with encryption, ensuring the integrity and confidentiality of the data.
  • Compliance and Validation: The model supports compliance with local tax and business regulations by facilitating accurate and secure data exchange, which can be audited and validated by relevant authorities (e.g., tax offices).

Implementation in Malaysia

In Malaysia, the implementation of the 4-Corner Model is part of the National E-Invoicing Initiative aimed at driving business digitalization and tax compliance. The Malaysia Digital Economy Corporation (MDEC) and Lembaga Hasil Dalam Negeri Malaysia (LHDNM) are key stakeholders in this initiative. They ensure that businesses can submit e-invoices for tax reporting and compliance effectively using either direct APIs or through PEPPOL Service Providers.

Practical Use Case

A typical scenario involves a supplier generating an e-invoice in their ERP system (Corner 1), which is then sent to their chosen PEPPOL Access Point (Corner 2). This Access Point translates the invoice into a PEPPOL-compliant format and sends it across the network to the buyer’s Access Point (Corner 3). The buyer’s Access Point translates it back into a format suitable for the buyer’s ERP system (Corner 4), where it is received and processed.

Use Case: Implementing the 4-Corner Model for E-Invoicing in Malaysia

Scenario:Imagine a manufacturer of electronic goods in Kuala Lumpur, "ElectroTech Malaysia," sells a large order of electronics to a major retailer, "GadgetMart," located in Penang. The transaction needs an invoice that must be processed accurately and efficiently for payment and tax compliance purposes.


  • ElectroTech Malaysia (Supplier)
  • GadgetMart (Buyer)
  • Access Point A (ElectroTech's Service Provider)
  • Access Point B (GadgetMart's Service Provider)

Steps Involved:

  1. Invoice Creation:
    • ElectroTech Malaysia prepares an invoice for the recent shipment of electronics sold to GadgetMart.
    • The invoice includes all relevant details such as item descriptions, quantities, prices, tax information, and terms of payment.
  2. Sending the Invoice:
    • ElectroTech uses their ERP system to send the invoice electronically.
    • The ERP system is configured to automatically forward this invoice to Access Point A (their chosen service provider in the 4-Corner Model).
  3. Invoice Standardization at Access Point A:
    • Access Point A receives the invoice and converts it into a standardized format prescribed by the PEPPOL framework, ensuring it adheres to all required specifications for cross-system compatibility.
    • This includes validating the invoice against Malaysia’s e-invoicing requirements to ensure all necessary fields are correctly filled.
  4. Transmission to Access Point B:
    • The standardized invoice is securely transmitted from Access Point A to Access Point B, the service provider chosen by GadgetMart.
    • This transmission is facilitated through a secure network that guarantees the integrity and confidentiality of the data.
  5. Receiving and Processing the Invoice:
    • Access Point B receives the invoice and performs a similar validation process to ensure it meets all local compliance requirements.
    • Once validated, Access Point B converts the invoice into a format suitable for GadgetMart’s internal systems.
  6. Invoice Reception at GadgetMart:
    • GadgetMart receives the invoice through their ERP system, which automatically imports and records the invoice details.
    • The finance team reviews the invoice for accuracy and prepares for payment according to the terms agreed with ElectroTech Malaysia.
  7. Completion and Archiving:
    • Once the payment is processed, both ElectroTech and GadgetMart store the transaction records for future reference and compliance with Malaysian tax laws.
    • The e-invoicing system ensures that both parties have a traceable, tamper-evident record of the transaction, simplifying audits and financial reporting.


The 4-Corner Model facilitates a robust, flexible, and secure framework for e-invoicing and other types of electronic document exchanges. It supports business efficiency by reducing manual data entry, minimizes errors, and ensures compliance with local and international standards, making it a cornerstone of modern digital trade and business processes.